What is an urological examination for?
The urological examination is performed by the specialist responsible for the urinary system: the urologist.
It is a non-invasive and painless examination that does not involve any specific preparation for the patient.
During the urological examination, all the components of the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra) are examined and their proper functioning is assessed. It is therefore possible to diagnose certain diseases of these organs, such as bladder incontinence, urinary tract infections, stones obstructing the outflow of urine, neoplasms, genital infections and disorders (especially in men), cystitis and prostatitis in men.
Patients are referred to a urologist when they experience symptoms such as:
- pain or difficulty urinating;
- involuntary leakage of urine;
- erection difficulties for men that can be traced to prostate disease.
How does the urological examination take place?
Like all medical examinations, the first phase of the urological examination consists of a conversation between the doctor and the patient. In this step, called anamnesis, the doctor asks the patient why he/she was referred to him/her, what symptoms he/she is experiencing, nutrition and lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol, sedentary lifestyle).
It is advisable to tell the doctor if taking any particular medication or if there are any associated diseases. This conversation is essential to place the patient and the symptoms in a clinical context and to direct the specialist towards a diagnosis.
The second part consists in a physical examination: a series of procedures the doctor carries out to assess the state of the organs. This part of the examination differs according to the gender of the patient:
- In men, an assessment of the lower abdomen and external genitalia is carried out, and sometimes the doctor may perform a digital rectal examination to assess the prostate (especially in older men reporting a constant need to urinate);
- In women, the examination is like the gynaecological examination: the health of the urinary system is assessed by abdominal or transvaginal ultrasound, to check for prolapses (i.e., excessive muscle relaxation) of the bladder or uterus that could be associated with incontinence.
At the doctor's discretion and depending on the data obtained during the examination, the patient may then be subjected to other diagnostic tests such as: urine examination, uroflowmetry (an examination that allows the dynamic assessment of urination to check the functioning of the muscles that empty the bladder), other ultrasound scans for further information.
The urological examination has no contraindications and carries no risks whatsoever.
The Urology and Andrology clinical activity at Auxologico
The Urology and Andrology clinical activity at Auxologico aims to offer the best diagnostic and therapeutic standards of urological and andrological diseases by creating programmes dedicated to individual and specific clinical conditions and patient pathologies.
Outpatient activities are carried out at all Auxologico sites, where all the diagnostic imaging equipment (traditional radiology, magnetic resonance imaging, CT scans and ultrasound scans) needed for the correct diagnostic assessment is also available.